En 2050 habrá tantos mayores de 60 años como menores de 15

Se trata de un fenómeno que se da en todo el mundo. Argentina no escapa de la tendencia mundial de envejecimiento de la población, debido a dos causas: el aumento en la expectativa de vida, y el descenso en la tasa de fertilidad.

En el año 2050, la población de Argentina menor de 15 años “será igual a la mayor de 60 años”, señaló la ministra de Desarrollo Social, Alicia Kirchner, al inaugurar el Primer Congreso Latinoamericano de Gerontología Comunitaria, en la Facultad de Derecho de la UBA. En el Congreso participan unos 2.300 especialistas de 19 países latinoamericanos, de España y de distintas provincias argentinas.

Por eso invitó a los especialistas a incluir a los adultos mayores “como sujetos de derecho y protagonistas de su tiempo”.

Según el último censo, en 2010, el 14,27% de la población tenía más de 60 años, mientras que los menores de 15 representaban el 25,48%. Pero Argentina no escapa de la tendencia mundial de envejecimiento de la población, debido a dos causas: el aumento en la expectativa de vida, y el descenso en la tasa de fertilidad.

Es en los países más desarrollados donde más se nota esta tendencia: en 2009, los menores de 15 años apenas sumaban el 16,6% de la población, mientras que los mayores de 60 ya llegaban al 21,4%.

Envejecimiento

Además, también la franja misma de adultos mayores está envejeciendo rápidamente. El informe de 2009 de la ONU sobre Envejecimiento de la población mundial señala que en todo el mundo, el segmento de los mayores de 80 años crece el 4%, casi el doble del incremento de los mayores de 60 años, que ronda el 2,5%. Allí, Argentina ocupa el puesto 58 en el ranking de envejecimiento.

Para Mónica Roqué, directora nacional de Políticas para Adultos Mayores, “la vejez está cargada de estereotipos negativos que la asocian a patologías y discapacidades. Por el contrario, la gran mayoría de los viejos son activos, participativos, y buscan intervenir en su comunidad”.

“Esa realidad obliga a tener políticas públicas transversales, vinculadas al territorio y a la cultura, para poder incidir y transformar –planteó la ministra–.

No hay que temerle al cambio, que debe ser no dogmático, desprejuiciado y creativo para incluir socialmente a los viejos en la sociedad”.

En ese sentido, la inclusión social no sólo pasa por recibir ingresos, sino que se extiende a una concepción más amplia: la integración comunitaria de los adultos mayores en su comunidad.

 

Fuente: clarin[dot]com

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