Preguntas que señalan el nivel de adicción

El análisis que la Sedronar realizó de la encuesta nacional de consumo de sustancias psicoactivas se base en un estudio que determina la adicción de in individuo a cierto tipo de sustancias.

Para determinar el grado de adicción al alcohol, la Sedronar estableció un cuestionario vinculado con la escala Audit, de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS).

Con esos parámetros se busca establecer el deseo de consumir alcohol, los síntomas de abstinencia, el desarrollo de tolerancia al consumo, situación que implica aumentos en las dosis para conseguir el efecto buscado y el abandono de otras formas de placer para tener más tiempo para beber, entre otros signos que permiten a los especialistas marcar un caso como de potencial peligro por el abuso de alcohol.

A las personas que responden afirmativamente a la pregunta sobre si consumió alcohol en el último mes, se le hace un sondeo más profundo. El encuestador pregunta entonces si tuvo problemas con su pareja como consecuencia de la bebida, si ha perdido amigos por su forma de beber y si tuvo ganas de disminuir el consumo de alcohol.

También se consulta a la persona sobre si bebe por las mañanas, si en algún momento después de una noche de bebidas se despertó sin saber qué había ocurrido y si le molesta que lo critiquen por su forma de beber, entre otras preguntas que les permiten establecer el perfil del consumidor.


Las respuestas

Por las respuestas estudiadas, el 13 por ciento de la población argentina, entre los 16 y 65 años, respondió afirmativamente a varias de esas preguntas, situación que determinó en el análisis de los expertos que más de un millón de personas tiene graves problemas de adicción al alcohol.

Al igual que lo que ocurre con el alcohol, en el consumo de marihuana también se detectaron patrones de fuerte adicción en el 18 por ciento de las personas que reconocieron su uso. El análisis de las respuestas también determinó que una de cada cuatro personas es tentada cada año por su círculo de relaciones personales a consumir marihuana.

“La droga ilícita de mayor consumo en el país, al igual que ocurre en otras naciones de la región, es la marihuana. Considerando el período 2004-2010, la tendencia es creciente en todos los grupos de edad, tanto en varones como en mujeres. Sin embargo, son los varones y los jóvenes comprendidos entre los 16 y 34 años los que muestran en todos los estudios las mayores tasas de consumo”, se indicó en el informe de la Sedronar.

El informe de la Sedronar indicó que la única percepción de gran riesgo de consumo que creció entre 2006 y 2010 fue sobre el hecho de fumar frecuentemente. Los fumadores representan ahora el 32,4 por ciento de la población entre los 16 y 65 años, con importantes variaciones en los porcentajes comparados a partir de 2004. Los jóvenes entre los 16 y 24 años fuman ahora nueve puntos porcentuales menos que hace siete años, cuando comenzó a sistematizarse la recolección de datos sobre consumo de drogas legales e ilegales. También se notó una disminución del consumo de cigarrillos entre los adultos jóvenes de los 35 a los 49 años.


Fuente: lanacion[dot]com[dot]ar


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