Los hábitos cotidianos que son un arma contra la hipertensión

Una dieta saludable, poca sal y el ejercicio físico ayudan a evitar que se manifieste.

En la Argentina hay 7 millones de hipertensos. Sólo la mitad sabe que tiene el problema y, peor aún, apenas unos 870.000 reciben tratamiento y alcanzan a controlar su presión. La buena noticia es que, muchas veces, la cura está al alcance, por medio de algunos hábitos cotidianos.

“Si bien no podemos actuar sobre la vulnerabilidad genética a padecer hipertensión, los hábitos cotidianos son las llaves que permiten o evitan que la enfermedad se manifieste”, explica la doctora Carol Kotliar, directora del Centro de Hipertensión del Hospital Universitario Austral.

¿Cuáles son las bases del plan contra la hipertensión?

Primero, adoptar una alimentación reducida en calorías, sodio y grasas saturadas, que “abunde en fibra aportada por cereales, harinas y panes integrales; legumbres, verduras y frutas, frutos secos, semillas y grasas insaturadas (Omega 9 y Omega 3)”, indica Mazzei.

La sal merece un párrafo aparte. “No se trata de erradicarla, sino de controlarla”, advierte la licenciada. Aconseja no cocinar con sal, sino agregarla en la mesa, y evitar los productos envasados por su alto contenido de sodio. “Sirve tener un salero personal con una cucharada de té al ras de sal para consumir durante el día”, apunta Kotliar. Las hierbas, las especias y el limón son buenas alternativas para condimentar.


Segundo pilar antihipertensión: mantener el peso. “Al aumentar de peso se acumula grasa en los tejidos, que puede ser tóxica. Para saber si tenemos una distribución normal de las grasas, medirse el perímetro de la cintura: en las mujeres debería ser menor a 88 centímetros y en el hombre menor a 102”, señala Daniel Piskorz, presidente de la Sociedad Argentina de Hipertensión Arterial.


Otro indicador del peso es el Índice de Masa Corporal: el peso (kg) se divide por la altura (m) al cuadrado. Para una persona con hipertensión, el valor debe ser menor a 25.


El tercer pilar implica actividad física regular y aeróbica: caminar, correr, remar, jugar al fútbol, andar en bicicleta. “Sesiones de 30 o 40 minutos, al menos cuatro veces por semana, reducen los valores de presión arterial”, asegura Martín Ibarrola, cardiólogo y médico del plantel superior de rugby del Club Regatas de Bella Vista. “La frecuencia es tan importante como la duración. Se puede arrancar de manera gradual, con sesiones cortas, cada vez más frecuentes y prolongadas. Es clave sentirse cómodo con la intensidad y no terminar extenuado”, dice. El ejercicio contribuye, aparte, a atenuar el estrés, otro factor de riesgo de hipertensión.


Por último, los expertos aconsejan limitar el consumo de alcohol: la cantidad aceptada equivale a dos vasos de vino, dos latas de cerveza o una medida de bebidas destiladas (en las mujeres y personas muy delgadas, esta cantidad se reduce un 50%). Y, también, abandonar el tabaquismo activo y pasivo.


Cambiar de hábitos cuesta

“Es difícil arrancar con actividad física, renovar las compras del supermercado… Empezar a entender que no se trata de que uno cambie, sino de que toda la familia cambie”, admite la doctora Kotliar. A pesar de todo, afirma que la sociedad “tiene más conciencia” y que se percibe una “vuelta a lo natural”.


“El mundo cambia la imagen de la vida feliz, que dejó de identificarse con el hombre fumando y tomando whisky mientras ve tele, y se acercó a la de una persona activa y saludable”, concluye.



Fuente: clarín[dot]com

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