Las enfermedades prevenibles causan 8 de cada 10 muertes

La ONU difundió datos de Argentina. Los problemas cardiovasculares van primeros. Le siguen el cáncer, trastornos respiratorios y diabetes. Las campañas no alcanzan y la gente no cambia los hábitos.

Cáncer, enfermedades cardiovasculares, trastornos respiratorios y diabetes: cuatro enfermedades crónicas por las que mueren 36 millones de personas por año en el mundo. Argentina no está exenta. Según el Mapa de las Enfermedades No Transmisibles que difundió el jueves la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) –el organismo para la salud de las Naciones Unidas (ONU)–, el 80% de los fallecimientos en nuestro país se produce por alguna de esas enfermedades: es decir, 8 de cada 10 habitantes mueren por problemas de salud que pueden prevenirse.

El mapa de las Enfermedades No Transmisibles (ENT) incluye 193 países. En Argentina, según el estudio de la OMS, los trastornos cardiovasculares van primeros: son responsables del 33% de las muertes. Los cánceres representan los 20%, seguidos por las enfermedades respiratorias (10%) y la diabetes (3%). Los traumatismos (accidentes) representan el 6% de las víctimas totales y las enfermedades transmisibles, como el VIH, y otras patologías, el 14%. Los organismos sanitarios se refieren a estas patologías como “los cuatro asesinos” y hablan de una epidemia a la que es urgente ponerle freno.

Las muertes a causa de estas cuatro enfermedades son prevenibles, pero para eso hay que disminuir los factores de riesgo. Y los argentinos, en ese sentido, no nos cuidamos. De acuerdo al informe, la prevalencia de los factores de riesgo en la población es alta. Más de la mitad del país, el 64,2%, tiene sobrepeso; el 68% no hace actividad física; el 36,7% de la población tiene presión arterial elevada y el 23% consume a diario tabaco, vinculado con los trastornos respiratorios. La OMS también señala que si bien hay políticas públicas en tabaco, dieta, actividad física y cáncer, faltan acciones para combatir el consumo de alcohol y las enfermedades cardiovasculares.

 

Campañas ¿efectivas?

“Las campañas de prevención de adicciones a nivel nacional y porteño son insuficientes”, arranca Carlos Damin, jefe de Toxicología del Hospital Fernández, uno de los especialistas consultados por Clarín. Damin aclara que el consumo de alcohol, tabaco o sustancias prohibidas no provoca estas enfermedades, pero sí las agrava. Además de ser débiles en el mensaje, el especialista destaca que las campañas que hay, van por la negativa. “No consumas, no tomes. Cada vez que van por lado de la prohibición, el resultado es pobre. Hay que promocionar los hábitos saludables: comer sano, hacer deportes, no automedicarse”, sostiene.

En cuanto a afecciones del corazón, Argentina está dentro de la media respecto de los países desarrollados: casi un 40% de las muertes están asociadas a un problema cardiovascular. La estadística se estancó hace unos 30 años para Roberto Ingaramo, ex vicepresidente de la Sociedad Argentina de Hipertensión Arterial. “La gente vive más, pero se sigue muriendo de lo mismo –resume–. No terminan de adoptar un estilo de vida saludable y tampoco se controlan. Los que hacen actividad física siempre son muy pocos, el cigarrillo se sigue vendiendo como antes y los jóvenes fuman mucho. Están más informados y supuestamente atienden los buenos consejos. Pero aún no hay resultados que reflejen ese cambio”.

“Aunque están encaminadas, las campañas de prevención todavía no son suficientes. La puesta en vigencia de la Ley Antitabaco no restringe el acceso al tabaco pero sí protege al fumador pasivo, y eso es un buen paso. Por otro lado, es destacable que los estados atiendan a las enfermedades crónicas y prevenibles. Se dieron cuenta de que presentan costos humanos y económicos importantes. Reunirse para conocer la magnitud del problemas es dar respuesta a la población”, señala Javier Osatnik, miembro del Consejo Ejecutivo del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, organismo estatal creado hace un año. Los cánceres están segundos en el ranking de morbilidad en Argentina, según la OMS.

Diabetes y cigarrillo

La diabetes queda en el último puesto, pero no por eso es menos importante. Silvio Schraier, médico especialista en Nutrición, docente de la UBA y miembro de la Sociedad Argentina de Diabetes, habla de “diabesidad”. Se refiere así a la enfermedad (diabetes), asociada con el factor de riesgo (obesidad). El parentesco, asegura, es directo y por eso requiere de la misma atención que las enfermedades que van primeras en la lista. “Para disminuir las cifras de diabetes e hipertensión, hay que generar distintas medidas para estimular a la no gordura, al no sedentarismo, al mayor consumo de frutas y verduras. Es un esfuerzo multisectorial que no puede llevar menos de una década”, aporta el especialista.

La Ley Antitabaco, las campañas destinadas a reducir el consumo de grasas trans y sal y a alentar la ingesta de frutas y verduras, la incorporación al calendario obligatorio de la vacuna contra el VPH y la reglamentación de la Ley Celíaca servirán como ejemplo de la experiencia argentina. “Hay mucho por hacer –reconoce Kosacoff desde Nueva York–, el esfuerzo debe estar puesto en concientizar a la gente, con fuertes campañas de promoción de la vida saludable”. Eso, sumado a la inversión de recursos, al acceso a los medicamentos una vez que la persona se enferma y al control médico periódico, además del trabajo intersectorial que obliga al sector privado, industrial, ONG y la sociedad científica a sumarse al sector público, es la propuesta argentina para el mundo.

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