Hay más de 1 millón de alcohólicos en Argentina

El estudio nacional sobre adicciones dio como resultado que un 13 por ciento de la población tiene problemas con la bebida y que hubo una suba en el consumo de marihuana desde el año 2004.

Pese a las campañas oficiales y a los cambios en leyes para prevenir el consumo de alcohol, en la Argentina se mantiene un importante núcleo duro de bebedores compulsivos. Más de un millón de personas de entre 16 y 65 años pueden ser calificadas directamente de alcohólicas, con síntomas de necesidad de ser tratadas por esa adicción.

Esto indicó el análisis que la Sedronar realizó de la encuesta nacional de consumo de sustancias psicoactivas, cuyo sondeo a 12.589 personas fue concretado en todo el país entre noviembre y diciembre de 2010.

“El uso problemático alcanza una magnitud del 13 por ciento, con una potencial demanda de tratamiento por alcohol”, se aseguró en el informe del Observatorio Argentino de Drogas de la Sedronar.

Desde 2004, se desarrolla cada dos años una encuesta nacional para verificar el volumen del problema de consumos de drogas legales (alcohol y tabaco) e ilegales en la Argentina.

En la comparación de los cuatro sondeos realizados, puede visualizarse que los bebedores anuales de alcohol disminuyeron desde el 72,8% establecido en 2004 al 61,4% que fue apuntado en esta nueva encuesta. Sin embargo, este último porcentaje muestra un incremento en relación con los números encontrados en 2008, cuando el 57,8% de los encuestados reconoció que ese año había consumido al menos una vez alguna bebida alcohólica.

Más allá de los llamados “consumidores sociales” (los que toman alcohol ocasionalmente), fue detectado en el estudio un 13 por ciento de la población con serios problemas de adicción a la bebida. Los analistas del Observatorio Argentino de Drogas, encabezado por Diego Alvarez y por Graciela Ahumada como directora de este estudio determinaron abuso del consumo de alcohol a partir de las respuestas a un amplio cuestionario (sobre lo que se informa por separado).

Ese grupo de consumidores abusivos de alcohol aparece dominado por los varones. El 19% de los hombres que beben tienen síntomas de ser adictos, al igual que el 6% de las mujeres. También los más jóvenes son los que principalmente integran ese núcleo de riesgo, ya que el 19% de los adolescentes de entre 16 y 24 años figura en la categoría de bebedores con rasgos dominantes de alcoholismo.

El trabajo de campo fue hecho por la Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero, que también tuvo a su cargo el relevamiento de 2006. En 2004, el trabajo fue encargado a la consultora OPSM, mientras que dos años antes la medición había sido realizada por el Indec. La primera encuesta nacional se concretó en 1999, aunque por la cantidad de personas sondeadas (unas 3000, en tanto que en las otras cuatro el promedio fue de 15.000), se optó por no usarla como punto de partida para las comparaciones. En 2006 se midieron fuertes incrementos en el consumo de todas las drogas, pero los investigadores consideran que puede haber ocurrido una falla en esa muestra.

Por eso, la comparación que se realizó esta vez en la Sedronar fue en relación con la encuesta de 2004. En ese caso, bajaron los niveles de consumo de alcohol y de tabaco (consumido por el 32,4% de la población), pero crecieron los de las drogas ilegales.

 

Tolerancia social

Entre 2004 y 2010, se duplicó el consumo de marihuana. La prevalencia anual pasó del 1,9% al 3,7%, porcentaje que representa a unas 640.000 personas que fuman anualmente esa sustancia ilegal.

Al igual que lo que ocurre con el alcohol, en el consumo de marihuana también se detectaron patrones de fuerte adicción en el 18 por ciento de las personas que reconocieron su uso.

“La droga ilícita de mayor consumo en el país, al igual que ocurre en otras naciones de la región, es la marihuana. Considerando el período 2004-2010, la tendencia es creciente en todos los grupos de edad, tanto en varones como en mujeres. Sin embargo, son los varones y los jóvenes comprendidos entre los 16 y 34 años los que muestran en todos los estudios las mayores tasas de consumo”, se indicó en el informe de la Sedronar.

Una de las causas establecidas por las investigadores para ese incremento del consumo de marihuana tiene que ver con el aumento, a su vez, de la tolerancia social al uso de esa sustancia ilegal. El consumo avanza de manera proporcional a la aceptación popular de la marihuana y a la disminución de la percepción de riesgo sobre su utilización.

La cocaína, en cambio, mantiene importantes niveles de rechazo y elevados porcentajes de percepción del riesgo asociado a su consumo. Según el 73,8% de la población, significa un real peligro para la salud consumir cocaína aunque sea una vez. La prevalencia anual de esa droga llega al 0,9 por ciento, cifra relativamente baja, pero que representa un importante incremento proporcional del mercado desde el 0,3 por ciento establecido en 2004.

El consumo de cocaína, además, se encuentra vinculado con situaciones de dependencia a la droga, tal como quedó demostrado en el informe oficial: “Un 47 por ciento de los usuarios de cocaína pueden clasificarse con signos que indican uso compulsivo, desarrollo de tolerancia y síntomas de privación o abstinencia”.

El análisis de las respuestas también determina que una de cada cuatro personas es tentada cada año por su círculo de relaciones personales a consumir marihuana.

Diferente es el caso del paco, cuyo consumo está asociado por la población con un gran riesgo físico y, en consecuencia, queda marginado a zonas muy focalizadas, que se mueven durante los años analizados en una franja de consumo que no supera el 0,5 por ciento.

 

FUMAR TABACO YA NO ESTÁ DE MODA

El informe de la Sedronar indicó que la única percepción de gran riesgo de consumo que creció entre 2006 y 2010 fue sobre el hecho de fumar frecuentemente. Los fumadores representan ahora el 32,4 por ciento de la población entre los 16 y 65 años, con importantes variaciones en los porcentajes comparados a partir de 2004. Los jóvenes entre los 16 y 24 años fuman ahora nueve puntos porcentuales menos que hace siete años, cuando comenzó a sistematizarse la recolección de datos sobre consumo de drogas legales e ilegales. También se notó una disminución del consumo de cigarrillos entre los adultos jóvenes de los 35 a los 49 años.

Fuente: lanacion[dot]com[dot]ar

Foto: bulhufas[dot]es

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